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Laproscopy

What is Laproscopy?

Laproscopy or Key hole surgery is where operations are done with small incisions( 1cm or 0.5 cm). There are a number of advantages to the patient with laparoscopic surgery versus the more common, open procedure. Pain and hemorrhaging are reduced due to smaller incisions and recovery times are shorter.

Advantages

There are a number of advantages to the patient with laparoscopic surgery versus an open procedure.
1. Smaller incision, which reduces pain and shortens recovery time, as well as resulting in less post-operative scarring.

1. Less pain, leading to less pain medication needed.
2. Although procedure times are usually slightly longer, hospital stay is less, and often with a same day discharge which leads to a faster return to everyday living.
3. Reduced exposure of internal organs to possible external contaminants thereby reduced risk of acquiring infections.

List of Procedures Performed Through Key Hole Surgery.

1. Laproscopic Cholecystectomy
2. Laproscopic Appendectomy
3. Laproscopic Hernia
4. Laproscopic Hysterectomy
5. Laproscopic Ovarian cystectomy
6. Laproscopic sterilisation
7. Laprocopic varicocele
For further details of the surgeries discuss with your surgeon

After the Procedure
When you wake from the procedure, you may feel a little sore around the cuts. You may also have some pain in your shoulder - this is caused by pressure from the gas in your abdomen.

After a few hours in recovery, you are likely to be sent home with care instructions, including about any pain, dressings and stiches you may have.

Laproscopic Surgeries

Laproscopic Cholecystectomy

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the gold standard in the treatment of symptomatic gallstones. The common opinion about treatment of acute cholecystitis is initially conservative treatment due to preventing complications of inflamation and following laparoscopic cholecystectomy after 6- 8 weeks. However with the increase of laparoscopic experience in recent years, early laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become more common.

Laproscopic Appendectomy

Appendectomy can be performed as open surgery using one abdominal incision about 2 to 4 inches (5 to 10 centimeters) long (laparotomy). Or the surgery can be done through a few small abdominal incisions (laparoscopic surgery). During a laparoscopic appendectomy, the surgeon inserts special surgical tools and a video camera into your abdomen to remove your appendix.

In general, laparoscopic surgery allows you to recover faster and heal with less pain and scarring. It may be better for older adults and people with obesity.

But laparoscopic surgery isn't appropriate for everyone. If your appendix has ruptured and infection has spread beyond the appendix or you have an abscess, you may need an open appendectomy, which allows your surgeon to clean the abdominal cavity.

Expect to spend one or two days in the hospital after your appendectomy.

Laproscopic Hernia

Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair uses an instrument called a laparoscope. Between two and four small incisions are made through the abdominal wall through which are passed the laparoscope (a thin telescope with a light on the end) and surgical instruments into the abdomen. The incisions are small, so the whole technique is often called keyhole surgery. (Conventional surgery is called open surgery.)

It is also often referred to as minimally invasive or minimal access surgery.

The hernia is then viewed from inside the abdomen, from the other side of the abdominal wall.

The abdominal cavity is inflated with carbon dioxide gas to give the surgeon space to work inside the patient and the actual operating is done remotely with long instruments.

The hernia defect or hole is covered with mesh from within the abdomen and staples commonly fired through it into the muscle tissue in order to fix it as a patch.

Laproscopic Hysterectomy

A hysterectomy is an operation to remove a woman's uterus. A woman may have a hysterectomy for different reasons, including:

1 Uterine fibroids that cause pain, bleeding, or other problems
2 Uterine prolapse, which is a sliding of the uterus from its normal position into the vaginal canal
3 Cancer of the uterus, cervix, or ovaries
4 Endometriosis
5 Abnormal vaginal bleeding
6 Chronic pelvic pain
7 Adenomyosis, or a thickening of the uterus
Hysterectomy for noncancerous reasons is usually considered only after all other treatment approaches have been tried without success.

Types of Hysterectomy:

Depending on the reason for the hysterectomy, a surgeon may choose to remove all or only part of the uterus. Patients and health care providers sometimes use these terms inexactly, so it is important to clarify if the cervix and/or ovaries are removed:

In a supracervial or subtotal hysterectomy, a surgeon removes only the upper part of the uterus, keeping the cervix in place.

A total hysterectomy removes the whole uterus and cervix.

In a radical hysterectomy, a surgeon removes the whole uterus, tissue on the sides of the uterus, the cervix, and the top part of the vagina. Radical hysterectomy is generally only done when cancer is present.

The ovaries may also be removed -- a procedure called oophorectomy -- or may be left in place. When the tubes are removed that procedure is called salpingectomy. So, when the entire uterus, both tubes, and both ovaries are removed, the entire procedure is called a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingectomy-oophorectomy.

Laproscopic Ovarian Cystectomy

Ovarian cyst removal is surgery to remove a cyst or cysts from 1 or both of your ovaries. A laparoscopic surgery uses small incisions and specialized tools. It may offer faster recovery times than open surgery , which uses a larger abdominal incision.

Reasons for Procedure:

An ovarian cyst may need to be removed if it is:
i) Suspected of being cancerous —the chances are more likely in older woman
ii) Large—more than 2.5 inches in diameter
iii) Solid—rather than containing just fluid
iv) Causing pain

Description of the Procedure: A small incision will be made just below the navel. Next, a laparoscope will be inserted. This is a thin tube with a camera on the end. To allow the doctor to better view the organs, carbon dioxide gas will be pumped into the abdomen. The laparoscope will be used to locate the cyst. When it is found, 1 or 2 more incisions will be made. Surgical instruments will be inserted to remove the cyst. Tissue may be removed for testing. If cancer is found, both ovaries may need to be removed. After the cyst is removed, the instruments will be removed. The incision area will be closed with stitches or staples.

In some cases, the doctor may switch to an open surgery . During an open surgery, a larger incision will be made in the abdomen to do the surgery.

Laproscopic Sterilisation

Sterilization by laparoscopy is a common procedure used to perform tubal ligation in women. Tubal ligation is a method of sterilization that involves obstruction of the fallopian tubes.

The fallopian tubes are on either side of the uterus and extend toward the ovaries. They receive eggs from the ovaries and transport them to the uterus. Once the fallopian tubes are closed, the man's sperm can no longer reach the egg.

Laparoscopy enables the physician to complete tubal ligation by making a small incision near the navel. This smaller incision reduces recovery time after surgery and the risk of complications. In most cases, the woman can leave the surgery facility within 4 hours after laparoscopy.

How is sterilization by laparoscopy performed?

You will be given a general anesthetic to relax your muscles and prevent pain during surgery. An intravenous line (I.V.) will be inserted into a vein in your hand or arm. Next, a device will be gently inserted into the vagina to move the uterus.

A small incision is then made near the navel. A laparoscope, a thin viewing tube about the width of a pencil, is passed through this incision and the abdomen is inflated to make the organs easier to view.

A special device for grasping the fallopian tubes is inserted through a second, small incision made at the pubic hairline. The fallopian tubes are sealed in one of two ways: with an electric current that makes the tube clot (electrocoagulation) or with a band or clip that is placed over the tubes. Your physician may also cut the fallopian tubes. After the fallopian tubes have been sealed, the laparoscope and grasping device are removed and a small bandage is applied over the incisions.

Laprocopic Varicocele

A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins in your scrotum. Varicocelectomy is a surgery performed to remove those enlarged veins. The procedure is done to restore proper blood flow to your reproductive organs.

When a varicocele develops in your scrotum, it can block blood flow to the rest of your reproductive system. The scrotum is the sac that contains your testicles. Because blood can’t return to your heart through these veins, blood pools in the scrotum and the veins become abnormally large. This can decrease your sperm count.

How is this procedure performed?

Varicocelectomy is an outpatient procedure. You’ll be able to go home the same day.

Before the surgery:

Let your doctor know if you’re taking medications or supplements. Stop taking any blood thinners, such as warfarin (Coumadin) or aspirin, to lower your risk of bleeding during the surgery. Follow your doctor’s fasting instructions. You may not be able to eat or drink for 8 to 12 hours before the surgery. Have someone take you to and from the surgery. Try to take the day off work or other responsibilities.

To perform a laparoscopic varicocelectomy, your surgeon will:

1 Make several small cuts in your lower abdomen
2 Insert the laparoscope through one of the cuts, allowing them to see inside your body using a screen that projects the camera view
3 Introduce gas into your abdomen to allow more space for the procedure
4 Insert surgical tools through other small cuts
5 Use tools to cut any enlarged veins that are blocking blood flow
6 Seal off the ends of the veins using small clamps or by cauterizing them with heat remove the tools and laparoscope once the cut veins are sealed.

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